谁在破坏 FB、谁又在拯救它、李开复的新书以及一周全球主流杂志导读 Weekly Spot 002

这期「Weekly Spot」,你将看到以下精彩内容:

  1. 桑德伯格是如何一手「破坏」Facebook 的?
  2. 扎克伯格还能修理好 Facebook 么?
  3. Google 人工智能的三件小事;
  4. 李开复的新书:
  5. 全球主流杂志导读;



Facebook 本周遇到前所未有的质疑,《纽约时报》采访了 50 多位 FB 员工或前员工以及大量政府官员,展现了 FB 面对外部压力而做出的一系列看似正确却不负责任的决定

差不多两年前,在美国大选后,扎克伯格被问及 FB 是否影响了美国大选,扎克伯格说出了这么一番话

“I do think there is a certain profound lack of empathy in asserting that the only reason someone could have voted the way they did is they saw some fake news,” Zuckerberg said. “If you believe that, then I don’t think you have internalized the message the Trump supporters are trying to send in this election.”

这番话可以一次次拿出来证明扎克伯格当时的「无知」,但也是 Facebook 内部混乱管理的反应。《纽约时报》这篇调查长文指出,扎克伯格和桑德伯格完全低估了此次危机的影响。但由于桑德伯格在公司内部负责政治议题,因此本文也是围绕桑德伯格的一系列决策过程,比如她如何「最小化俄罗斯在 FB 的影响」:

If Facebook implicated Russia further, Mr. Kaplan said, Republicans would accuse the company of siding with Democrats. And if Facebook pulled down the Russians’ fake pages, regular Facebook users might also react with outrage at having been deceived: His own mother-in-law, Mr. Kaplan said, had followed a Facebook page created by Russian trolls.

Ms. Sandberg sided with Mr. Kaplan, recalled four people involved. Mr. Zuckerberg — who spent much of 2017 on a national “listening tour,” feeding cows in Wisconsin and eating dinner with Somali refugees in Minnesota — did not participate in the conversations about the public paper. When it was published that April, the word “Russia” never appeared.

Ms. Sandberg’s subordinates took a similar approach in Washington, where the Senate had begun pursuing its own investigation, led by Richard Burr, the North Carolina Republican, and Mark Warner, the Virginia Democrat. Throughout the spring and summer of 2017, Facebook officials repeatedly played down Senate investigators’ concerns about the company, while publicly claiming there had been no Russian effort of any significance on Facebook.

再比如国会听证会前,Facebook 的游说者们曾多次暗示政府,希望 Google 也派出一位与桑德伯格同等级别的高层参加:

In the committee room the next day was an empty chair behind a placard labeled “Google.” Facebook had lobbied for the hearing to include a Google emissary of similar rank to Ms. Sandberg. The company won a partial victory when Mr. Burr announced that Larry Page, a Google co-founder, had been invited, along with Jack Dorsey, Twitter’s chief executive.

Mr. Dorsey showed up. Mr. Page did not.

As the hearing unfolded, senators excoriated Google for its absence, earning a wave of negative news coverage for Facebook’s rival.

《纽约时报》这篇文章还有一个潜在的可怕推理,当扎克伯格继续追寻人工智能拯救公司时,桑德伯格目前的一系列决策,到底是为了 Facebook 还是为了自己的个人品牌?尤其是桑德伯格未来可能会进入华盛顿圈子的背景里,Facebook 还有明天吗?


9 月份的时候,《纽约客》有一篇扎克伯格的长文,作者为知名记者欧逸文,这篇文章涵盖的内容非常多,扎克伯格的家庭到他创立 FB 的经历以及 FB 发展过程中多个重要节点,你会发现扎克伯格形象,并非如 CNN 所言的「没有情商的工程师」,也不是电影《社交网络》里的那个野心勃勃的创业者。

但他却有着技术从业者或者硅谷人的傲慢,Facebook 2012 年开始推出在线直播产品 Live,但不久以后就出现了问题:

……the service let users flag videos as inappropriate, but it didn’t give them a way to indicate where in a broadcast the problem appeared. As a result, Facebook Live videos of people committing suicide, or engaged in criminal activity, started circulating before reviewers had time to race through, find the issues, and take the videos down. A few months after the service launched, a Chicago man named Antonio Perkins was fatally shot on Facebook Live and the video was viewed hundreds of thousands of times.

从产品设计的角度来看,Live 的初衷是提供一个以视频展示自己动态的新窗口,一如 Uber、滴滴对于所谓「共享出行」的推崇,但新技术与新理念却不得不和社会现实产生冲突,当 Facebook 面临上述问题时,并没有真正意识到问题的严重性,欧逸文写道:

The incident might have served as a warning to slow down, but, instead, the next day, Bosworth sent around a remarkable internal memo justifying some of Facebook’s “ugly” physical and social effects as the trade-offs necessary for growth: “Maybe it costs a life by exposing someone to bullies. Maybe someone dies in a terrorist attack coordinated on our tools. And still we connect people. The ugly truth is that we believe in connecting people so deeply that anything that allows us to connect more people more often is de facto good.”

美国大选中假新闻、缅甸种族冲突里的仇恨信息,扎克伯格的态度一如他在 2016 年的判断。他认为他的平台提供了足够丰富的新闻,无论真假;他同时也认为,他的用户可以像他一样分辨真假新闻。悲哀的是,或许也是这样的自信,让菲律宾、缅甸等地用户付出了生命的代价。


Across the board, the solution to this is we need to move from what is fundamentally a reactive model to a model where we are using technical systems to flag things to a much larger number of people who speak all the native languages around the world and who can just capture much more of the content.

周五,Facebook 官方以及桑德伯格团队,已经就《纽约时报》的文章做出了一些回应,感兴趣的朋友可以点击这里阅读官方回应,桑德伯格的回应在这里。


(3)Google AI 的三件「小事」

「目前的人工智能是非常愚蠢的,」这句话出自 Google Cloud AI 部门负责人 Andrew Moore,这个表态并非是否定人工智能,而是要更好地推进人工智能研究。

本周,Google 发布了 Android 输入法 Gboard 新版本里,加入了人工智能自动推荐 GIF 功能。据了解,该功能可以的 AI 算法都是基于本地运行,不仅速度快,而且能够降低用户对于隐私的担忧。

与此同时,Pixel 相机夜视模式评测。Google 上月展示了 Pixel 3 的夜视模式今天正式向所有 Pixel 手机相机开放,这是一个非常有趣的尝试,我曾在之前的会员通讯里做过详细讨论。针对这次更新,The Verge 有详细的评测

这两个产品都有一个共同的特点,基于终端的人工智能。通过将专属的硬件(比如 Pixel 手机里的图像芯片)以及适合手机的人工智能模型算法,Google 展现了一系列基于手机的人工智能能力,对手机行业发展有一定的示范意义。


而且在《连线》杂志的一篇文章里,Google 也展示了自己的硬件设计野心

You might have not heard of Ross – but it’s this soft-spoken, grey-haired woman who would later add the mint-green power button to the Pixel smartphone. It’s Ross who turned your Google speakers into river pebbles. It’s Ross who signs off any other Google hardware product before it hits the shelves. Can she turn the search giant into a mighty hardware design leader – and even nudge people to like Google Glass?

“I do not think design is the only part they [Google] are rethinking,” says Carolina Milanesi, a smartphone analyst. “It is about the experience. While these devices must be visually appealing, it is really about what they do, not how they look that matters.”

Still, up until two years ago, Google didn’t really have hardware ambitions. Its Nexus line of handsets was not designed in-house; it was simply intended to showcase Android. But with Android’s position in the market now unassailable, there is intense competition between manufacturers to create the best Android phone – and Google doesn’t really need Nexus to showcase Android’s features any longer. So what changed?

本周,Google AI 的最后一条消息就是 Google Cloud AI 研发主管以及 Google AI 中国研发负责人李佳已经离开 Google。


李开复的《 AI·未来》




目前,人工智能革命分为四波浪潮:互联网智能化(Internet AI)、商业智能化(business AI)、实体世界智能化(perception AI)、自主智能化(autonomous AI)。





11 月号的《大西洋月刊》封面很呆萌,但讨论的话题却很严肃。智能音箱已经不再是一台个人设备,而是具有了家庭属性,一如过往的电视机,当这台家庭「公共」设备越来越多,并理所当然地与家人互动之后,很多家庭关系都在重构,这篇[封面文章](https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/11/alexa-how-will-you-change-us/570844/)并不是为了找寻答案,而是为了让大家更好地思考。同时,这期杂志里还有其他几篇值得读的长文,比如讨论 YouTube(视频网站)对于孩子的影响,标题也很有趣「Raised by Youtube」,还有一篇介绍五角大楼如何进行士兵大脑研究的文章。

这期《彭博商业周刊》推荐一篇关于 Google 再次入华的文章,文章整体回顾了此次事件的一些主要事件,虽然没有得到 Google 高层的发言,但是还是有很多来自前员工和现员工的反馈,推荐一读。

这周《经济学人》封面的命题非常宏大,所谓「资本主义新革命」,强调的是政府应该放开对经济的管控,更多让市场发挥作用。这个命题最终用 7 篇小文章来做了深层次的解读,其中也有对科技公司的讨论,某种意义上说,这些科技巨头既是市场的受益者也是市场的破坏者。

这期《纽约客》里有一篇讨论 AI 时代图像是否还能反应真实的文章,我也在[上周](https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/11/12/in-the-age-of-ai-is-seeing-still-believing)的 Weekly Spot 里做过推荐。